[vbox-dev] IO-APIC support in custom kernel.
latentprion at gmail.com
Fri Apr 19 02:57:15 PDT 2013
I'm working on a kernel project in which I am currently attempting to get
IO-APIC support working in Virtual Box. I say "in Virtual Box", because the
my code works everywhere else -- on all of the real hardware test cases I
have (2 laptops), the Bochs emulator, Qemu and VMWare Player.
The exact description is as follows. When using the i8259 PIC IRQ
controllers, I am able to program the i8254 PIT timer to interrupt
periodically, and my kernel receives IRQs as expected, and the
rate/frequency of the IRQs is as programmed. My timer API successfully
times delays of any granularity supported by the i8254 PIT.
However, when I attempt to switch the chipset from "PIC" mode to "Symmetric
I/O" mode (and use the IO-APICs), the timer interrupt does not come in as
expected. I have checked as many assumptions as possible.
- The i8254 PIT timer works as programmed, and to the exact frequency
programmed when I am using the i8259 PIC IRQ routing system. The i8254 PIT
driver is not the problem.
- The ACPI MADT table does not allow for an "enabled" flag in the
IO-APIC entry structure, so it cannot be that I am enabling IO-APICs that
the Virtual Box firmware has marked as "unusable". In any case, Virtual
Box's firmware only reports one IO-APIC.
- I have programmed the IO-APIC's pins as detailed by the ACPI MADT's
ISA IRQ Override entry structures. There are two ISA IRQ Override entries
in the Virtual Box MADT. The first maps ISA IRQ 0 to ACPI Global System
Interrupt 2 (with default edge-triggering and rising edge, as expected for
ISA), and the second is an override for ISA IRQ pin 9 which just maps
ISA-IRQ-9 to GSI-9 with a level triggering override. I've programmed the
IO-APIC pins as specified.
- The pins on the IO-APIC are set to all interrupt the same CPU: CPU0,
and dumping the pin-states confirms this.
- The pins on the IO-APIC are all set to interrupt on CPU interrupt
vectors starting at vector 32 (since vectors 0-31 are reserved for
exceptions by Intel). Pin 0 interrupts on vector 32, pin 1 interrupts on
vector 33, and so on. This has been confirmed with a read-out and dump of
- When trying to unmask ISA-IRQ-0, I correctly unmask GSI 2, since the
ACPI MADT in Virtual Box overrides ISA-IRQ-0 to be mapped to GSI-2. (In
desperation, I also unmasked GSI-0, and even unmasked all of the IO-APIC
pins, all to no avail: no IRQs come in still when I am trying to use the
- The Local APIC units are probably not the problem, since I can send
INIT and STARTUP IPIs to them to boot AP CPUs -- they receive IPI
interrupts successfully in Virtual Box.
I'd like to repeat that this code works on real hardware, in Bochs, Qemu,
and VMware Player. Could I have some pointers? I am aware for example, that
Linux also had problems getting IO-APICs working on Virtual Box at some
point (According to
http://www.virtualbox.org/manual/ch12.html#ts_linux-buggy). I've checked as
many assumptions as I possibly can, including trying to use the ICH9
chipset instead of the PIIX3 chipset, and trying different Guest OS machine
configurations in the settings for my virtual machine (tried all of them in
the "Linux" series and "Windows" series).
Please feel free to ask me any questions, or ask me for any information you
see fit. The only reason I haven't completely dismissed this as a bug in
Virtual Box's IO-APIC code is that Linux (eventually, after patching the
kernel) was able to get IO-APICs working in Virtual Box. Could any of the
developers, or knowledgeable users provide any information on what exactly
the eccentricity in the Virtual Box IO-APIC implementation (if any)
actually is? I can provide ISO images of the kernel in question (I would be
very, very grateful if someone is willing to trace my kernel in Virtual
Box), and I am also willing to provide source code for the IO-APIC setup,
if needed (the project is actually open-sourced, GPV2 licensed. However,
I'm hesitant to publicly link to it for now, because I am still pretty far
from "first release"). I'd prefer to have this project work in all
emulators if possible.
--Thanks a lot,
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